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Waterjet Cutting: Methods, Applications, and Benefits

The process of waterjet cutting makes use of a computer-controlled (CNC) cutting device that has specialist software installed. This program controls the cutting head's motion, allowing it to cut through a variety of materials and objects. Waterjet cutters stand out in automation applications because of their unique non-thermal cutting technique.
This technology is widely applied in various fields, including the demolition of concrete structures and the cutting of sophisticated materials used in airplane fuselages. Its accuracy greatly increases the cutting process's efficiency.

As we get deeper into the features and advantages of this cutting-edge method, read on for additional information on the waterjet cutting process and its uses.


What is Waterjet Cutting?

Using a high-pressure stream of water that may or may not be combined with abrasive particles, waterjet cutting is an extremely accurate and efficient industrial method that can cut through a wide range of materials. With no heat generation or significant mechanical stress, this cutting process can create precise designs on a wide range of materials, including metals, composites, glass, ceramics, and stones. Because it guarantees the preservation of the material's structural integrity, waterjet cutting is especially useful for applications requiring exactitude and minute detail.

Using a high-pressure stream of water that may or may not be combined with abrasive particles, waterjet cutting is an extremely accurate and efficient industrial method that can cut through a wide range of materials. With no heat generation or significant mechanical stress, this cutting process can create precise designs on a wide range of cnc machinig materials, including metals, composites, glass, ceramics, and stones. Because it guarantees the preservation of the material's structural integrity, waterjet cutting is especially useful for applications requiring exactitude and minute detail.

Waterjet cutting: How Does It Operate?

Based on the material and application, waterjet cutting is a cutting-edge technology that can be divided into two primary categories: pure water cutting and abrasive water cutting. Stones, ceramics, and other hard materials are good candidates for abrasive water cutting. To cut through difficult surfaces, it uses a high-pressure water stream combined with abrasive materials like garnet sand. There are multiple crucial steps in the process:

  • Water is pumped at 2750 psi into a heavy-duty intensifier using a sizable electric pressure oil pump.

  • Because the hydraulic piston is 20 times larger than the water piston, the difference in size causes the pressure inside the intensifier to increase from 50–60 psi to 55,000 psi.

  • The water at extremely high pressure is then guided to a cutting head via a steel pipe and precisely shaped sapphire or diamond aperture.

  • Through a nozzle, the pressured water and abrasive combination escape, producing a powerful cutting stream that can effectively cut through hard materials.

  • For softer, more flexible materials like plastics, rubber, foam, and leather, on the other hand, Pure Water Cutting is perfect because it only uses water at high pressure. Some of this method's key features are:

  • In order to produce a high-speed jet that can cut materials neatly without the need for abrasives, water is compressed.

  • This method works especially well with goods like food and fabrics that are sensitive to temperature changes and hygienic conditions.

  • Pure water cutting is superior at creating exact cuts and elaborate designs, especially in 3D shapes and fine details, while having less cutting power. For cutting complicated materials, the nozzle size can be adjusted down to 0.08 mm from as tiny as 0.1 mm.

Both procedures take advantage of the special qualities of waterjet cutting, which provide accuracy and adaptability without the heat-related damage found in other cutting processes.


Important Elements of Waterjet-Cut Machining

Water is generated from a high-pressure pump through pipes and out of a tiny hole by a number of machine components. Among the elements are:

1. Pump with High Pressure
At a reasonable cost, this high-pressure pump ensures reliable pressure water operation. The majority of the key activities take place here, at the center of the waterjet system. In waterjet applications, two types of high-pressure pumps are utilized: intensifier pumps and direct drive-based pumps. Similar to a home washing deck, the direct drive-based pump uses a triplex to sense movement in each of its three plungers straight from the electric device. It provides between 20,000 and 50,000 psi and High-pressure water produced by intensifier pumps has the ability to break through hydraulic or water circuits.

2. Cutting Head
With regard to waterjet technology, this enables flawless precision alignment. The cutting structure is included in a mixing tube, jewel orifice, and Venturi chamber. The diamond orifice is the point at which the plumbing's pressured water turns into steam at a high speed. Once the steam has passed through the aperture, an abrasive and water mixture is present in the venturi chamber. Depending on the necessary provisions, various sizes and diameters are available for the orifice and mixing tubes. The abrasive and water combination comes out of the mixing tube.

3. Abrasive Delivery System
A metering unit with adjustable abrasive scales powers this system. The abrasive-to-water ratio for cutting materials varies depending on the material. After the machine is set up, the measurements are obtained and entered once and kept there until the job is completed. The sole variable in this operation is the nozzle speed, which is adjusted by the CNC.

4. Catcher Tank Combined with Table Saw
Large and heavy workpieces can be handled using a moveable catcher tank. During waterjet machining, the tank is abrasive and solely gathers water. Additionally, a functional table is positioned on top of the tank to assist with grating tasks.

5. Motion Equipment
This is driven by a steady-state servo system. Cutting heads can move freely over a cutting surface thanks to the cantilever system's X-Y movement mechanism and construction. Guide rails, linear screws, and sophisticated precision bearings power the axis. The following are some benefits of this motion equipment:

  • Unrestricted area for assembling and disassembling components or supplies.

  • The cutting area is easily accessible to operators.

  • A precise dual-drive system is not necessary because the beam only moves in one direction.

6. Control Software
Designed in CAD and saved in a DWG file, the Computer Numerical Control (CNC) system is an application that comes pre-installed. The file is automatically transformed into numerical files that the control system can understand. At that point, the machine learns which X, Y, and Z directions to move the cutting head in. This technology produces exact precision quickly and with reliability.


Different Waterjet Cutting Types

As previously mentioned, the cutting head's efficiency can be raised by the pressured water that enters the Venturi chamber through the aperture and combines with steam that shoots through a nozzle quickly. Two varieties of waterjet cutters exist:

Cutting with an Abrasive Waterjet: Method and Benefits

Although it requires extra parts to be added to the cutting head, this cutter uses pure waterjet cutting systems. These parts include abrasives, mixing chambers, and focusing nozzles. A vacuum is created in the cutting head by the abrasive compound combined with the pure water jet, and this vacuum travels to the mixing tube before exiting the cutting nozzle. The intensive mixing in the cutting head caused by the abrasive material, like garnet, results in a sharper and more cutting ability. Aluminum is among the hardest metals it can cut.

Applications for Abrasive Waterjet Cutter: 

  • Its tiny kerf makes it perfect for precise cutting.

  • Cuts a variety of materials without changing tools, including metals, composites, stone, and glass.

  • Permits the development of intricate designs that are not achievable with conventional techniques.

  • Adaptable to scale manufacturing as well as one-off ideas.

Benefits of Using an Abrasive Waterjet Cutter

  • Able to cut both thick and thin materials.

  • It leads to very little material waste being reduced.

  • For a variety of workpieces, just one jet configuration is needed.

  • It creates a narrow stream.

  • Creates no mechanical tension.

Drawbacks of the Abrasive Waterjet Cutter's :

  • In particular for hard materials, it may be slower than laser or plasma cutting.

  • Appropriate disposal of used abrasive material presents problems for operations and the environment.

  • It is more expensive than other cutting techniques because of the cost of abrasives and upkeep.

Pure Waterjet Cutting: Applications and Supplies

This is how the waterjet cutting tool was originally made. Compared to when the cutting machine meets the workpiece, it leaves less wetness on its surface. The pure waterjet cutter also produces no harmful waste during operation, making it suitable for cutting both soft and tough materials that have been separated from pure filtered water. Furthermore, because of its simplicity of use, it may attain a maximum added value of 90,000 PSI / 6200 bar.

Applications of Pure Waterjet Cutter:

  • Because of its low moisture content, it is excellent for cutting tissue paper, corrugated cardboard, and automobile interiors.

  • The food business can benefit from its sanitary and bacteria-free cutting procedure.

Benefits of pure waterjet cutter:

  • Soft materials and light workpieces can be easily sliced with it.

  • Its incredibly low cutting force operation.

  • It works with materials of any thickness and length.

  • During the cutting operation, no heat is produced.

  • Its water stream is extremely narrow.  

Drawbacks of the Pure Waterjet Cutter:

  • It cannot cut metal objects.

Types of Waterjet Cutting Machines

One Dimensional
For straight or linear cuts, this cutter has a single axis. This kind of machine, which is typically used to trim the edges of a workpiece, has a single direction of motion for the waterjet.

A water jet on the X-Y axis is used for this cut. It is possible to go from the X- to the Y-axis. It is capable of both circular and linear motion activities. 2-axis slitting is used in industries like aerospace, mining, construction, and agriculture to slit materials more quickly than with the conventional method. This method has strong and accurate capabilities without leaving a distorted edge, and it can be applied to a variety of workpieces. Lastly, cutting in the environment is not convenient due to burning procedures.

Three-Dimensional (XYZ) 
The X, Y, and Z axes are movable for this waterjet cut. Each axis rigorously constructs the machine tool frame, symbolizing a specific direction or movement. High-pressure technology and an intuitive panel make for improved handling, setup, and precision in the machining. Its accurate and very dynamic fixturing is made possible by its flexibility.

Four-Dimensional (XYZA)
The four rotating motions around the X-axis in this cut make it resemble the three-axis XYZ cut. It is also possible for the 4-axis cutter to rotate on the X-axis and A-axis in a circular pattern. In addition to having choices for turning the workpiece so that the waterjet may withdraw materials from its sides, it can mill the material on five of its sides and create curved cuts.

Five-Dimensional (XYZAB)
In a single setup, this 5-axis cutter can produce inclined, rotary, and linear pieces. It is simple to carry out 2D and 3D cuts on a variety of workpieces and in the majority of crucial fabrication procedures in welding, décor, automobile, and aerospace workshops. The G2 CNC machine in particular is a versatile 5-axis machine. It is simple to use and doesn't require technical expertise. It also offers the highest build quality and fastest operating possible in every product.

Richconn's Waterjet Cutting Services

Waterjet cutting equipment has several beneficial effects on local enterprises or manufacturing. This machine is multipurpose and environmentally friendly due to its simple design and ease of use. Being a cold-cutting method, its precise process is unmatched, making it a more appealing choice than alternatives.

In addition to being able to cut, waterjet also has sophisticated software that makes dealing with them stress-free, so if you want to offer a standard cutting finish for your company, they offer the most value for your money.

However, waterjet cutting has high requirements for professionalism, so in order to reduce unnecessary losses, choosing a professional company is a good choice. Richconn is a proficient supplier of industrial services. We have not only an excellent small waterjet cutting machine for sale, but have a skilled staff that can offer our clients prompt technical support and solutions. Furthermore, we have leading-edge waterjet cutting technologies and equipment that can handle any sort of cutting job and offer you cutting services that are effective, secure, and eco-friendly. We shall thus be your reliable partner. Please don't hesitate to get in touch with us if you need our waterjet cutting service; we will be pleased to help.


Waterjet cutting technology will become more environmentally friendly, intelligent, and efficient as a result of ongoing technological advancements and application area growth. This will improve processing services for a range of sectors. The technique of waterjet cutting will be crucial in many more fields. We have reason to think that one of the key areas of development in the industrial cutting field going forward will be waterjet cutting technology. Looking for reliable services of waterjet cutting near me? Why not try contacting Richconn?


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