Email Us

CNC Motion Control and Three Common Types

Many CNC machines can be left unattended throughout the machining cycle, freeing the operator for other tasks. This benefit allows CNC users to provide several side effects, including reduced operator fatigue, errors due to operator error, and consistent and predictable machining times for each workpiece. Because the machine will run under program control, the skill level required of a CNC operator is also reduced compared to that of a machinist who produces a machinist with a conventional machine tool.

The heart of CNC: Motion Control

The most basic function of any CNC machine is automatic, precise, and consistent motion control. All forms of CNC machines have two or more directions of motion, called axes. These axes can be precisely and automatically positioned along the length of their travel.

Instead of manually turning cranks and handwheels in the manner required to cause motion on conventional machines, CNC machines allow motion to be actuated by servomotors under CNC control and guided by part programs. In general, motion types such as, rapid, linear and circular, axis movement, amount of motion and rate of motion or feed rate are programmable with almost all CNC machines.

CNC commands executed within the control are usually programmed to tell the drive motor to rotate a precise number of times. The rotation of the drive motor in turn rotates the ballscrew. The ball roller drives the spool. A feedback device on the opposite end of the roller allows the control to confirm that the commanded number of rotations has occurred.

Although having a rather crude analogy, the same basic linear motion can be found in an ordinary watch vise eye. As you rotate the vise crank, you rotate the lead screw, which in turn drives the movable jaws on the VISE. In contrast, the linear axes on a CNC machine are very precise. The number of revolutions of the axis drive motor precisely controls the amount of linear motion along the axis.

1697167592539105.jpg

Direction of Motion (Axis)

The CNC programmer must be aware of the programmable directions of motion (axes) available to the CNC machine. The names of the axes will be converted from one machine type to the next. They are always submitted via letter address. Common axis names are X, Y, Z, U, V and W for linear axes and A, B and C for rotary axes.

As mentioned above, programs consist of commands and the commands consist of words. Each word has a letter address and a numeric value. The letter address tells the word type.CNC control manufacturers do differ in how they determine word names (letter addresses) and their meanings. Beginning CNC programmers must refer to the maker's programming manual for the control to determine word names and meanings. Here is a short list of some word types and their general letter address specifications.

O-Program number (for program identification)

n-Serial number (for line identification)

G-Preparation function

X-X-axis designation

Y-Y-axis designation

Z-Z-axis designation

R-Radius designation

F-Feed effect designation

S-Spindle speed

H-Tool length offset designation

D-Tool radius offset designation

T-Tool designation

M-Miscellaneous Functions

Rotary axis offsets still require a letter address (usually A, B, or C) as well as the endpoint of the motion. However, the endpoint of the rotary axis motion is specified in degrees (not inches or millimeters).

The three most basic types of motion

While your particular CNC machine may have more types of motion depending on your application, let's focus on the three most common types found on almost all forms of CNC equipment. After a brief introduction to each type of motion, we'll show a sample program that emphasizes all three.

Rapid Motion (also known as Positioning)

This motion type is used to command motion at the fastest rate of the machine. It is used to minimize unproductive time during a machining cycle. Common uses for rapid motion include positioning the tool to the cutting position, moving to clear fixtures and other obstacles, and generally, any non-cutting motion during the program.

Linear Motion

This motion type allows the programmer to move in a completely straight line as discussed in the case we discussed during our discussion of linear interpolation. This motion type also allows the programmer to specify the rate of motion (feed rate) to be used during the motion. Linear motion can be used at any time with linear motion, including when drilling holes, turning diameters, faces, or tapers, and when milling straight surfaces.

Circular motion

This type of motion causes the machine to move in a circular path. As mentioned earlier during our demonstration of circular interpolation, this type of motion is used to generate radii during machining. All of the feed rate related points made during our discussion of linear motion still apply.

The continued development and innovation of CNC technology will continue to drive manufacturing forward, providing more opportunities and solutions for a variety of industries. We hope this article has helped you better understand the fundamentals of CNC motion control and its types.

When it comes to CNC technology and precision manufacturing, one company that is highly respected in the industry deserves a mention.Richconn, founded in 2008, is a precision manufacturing company dedicated to providing high-quality manufacturing services. They stand out for their superior technology and expertise, offering a range of solutions such as CNC machining services, sheet metal services, and plating services.

Richconn is not only experienced in CNC machining, but can also fulfill customers' sheet metal needs, as well as provide plating services to ensure products meet the highest standards of quality and performance. Whether you need customized metal parts or are looking to enhance the appearance and durability of your product, Richconn has the expertise to support you.

Richconn has been a trusted partner in the field of precision manufacturing and CNC machining. If you have any questions about their services or need more information, please feel free to contact Richconn, who will be happy to provide you with exceptional manufacturing solutions.Richconn's team of professionals will ensure that your project receives the best attention and treatment to meet your needs and expectations.

Related CNC Machining Services
Related News of CNC Machining
  • Types And Characteristics Of FastenersTypes And Characteristics Of FastenersOctober 24, 2023Screws the most common fasteners used to create removable threaded connections in household appliances, industrial equipment, transportation, building structures and other machines and mechanisms. Consider the varieties of bolts, the materials of construction, and the characteristics of their manufacture.view
  • Why Motorcycle Parts Using CNC Machining?Why Motorcycle Parts Using CNC Machining?October 25, 2023Two-wheeled vehicles motorcycles are more prone to accidents than four-wheeled vehicles. In case of an accident, the motorcycle parts get damaged and these damaged parts need to be replaced if you want to continue enjoying your motorcycle.view
  • Unveiling the World of Helical Machined Springs: A Comprehensive ExplorationUnveiling the World of Helical Machined Springs: A Comprehensive ExplorationNovember 15, 2023Embarking on a journey through the intricate world of helical machined springs is more than just an exploration of engineering marvels – it's a pathway to unlocking innovation, efficiency, and reliability in diverse industries. In this article, I'll guide you through the essential aspects of helical machined springs, from their fundamental workings to practical applications and market trends.view
  • What is a CNC machine? The Precision Way to Modern ManufacturingWhat is a CNC machine? The Precision Way to Modern ManufacturingSeptember 21, 2023CNC machine stands for Computer Numerical Control, which is a manufacturing process that controls the movement of a tool or machine through a computer program.view
  • What is Black Oxide? A Guide on Black Oxide Coating 2023What is Black Oxide? A Guide on Black Oxide Coating 2023September 5, 2023While there are indeed numerous surface finish types available for manufacturers to choose from, the black oxide coating is a popular choice for many. The black oxide coating offers a combination of v...view
  • CNC Steel: Key to Precision in CNC MachiningCNC Steel: Key to Precision in CNC MachiningNovember 6, 2023​Are you seeking the perfect material for your CNC machining project, one that promises precision and durability? Look no further than CNC steel. In this guide, I'll take you through the world of CNC steel, helping you understand its various types, selection criteria, and how to make the most of this essential material in your CNC machining endeavors.view
Tel
+86-0755-28025755
Address
1212, Zehua Building, Intersection of Longhua Meilong Road and Donghuanyi Road, Songhe Community, Longhua Street, Longhua District, Shenzhen, GuangDong, China