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What Are the Methods of Testing the Properties of Metallic Materials?

1. Tensile testing

Tensile testing is a common method of evaluating the strength and ductility of materials. It involves placing a specimen in a tensile testing machine, gradually applying a tensile force, measuring the stress-strain curve and determining the yield strength, tensile strength, and elongation of the material.

The tensile test is one of the most widely used mechanical property test methods for metallic materials, in which a load is slowly applied to both ends of a specimen loaded in a testing machine, so that the working part of the specimen is subjected to axial tensile load along the axial elongation until it is pulled off. Determination of the resistance of the specimen to the applied load, you can find out the strength of the material evidence, determination of the specimen in the plastic deformation after pulling off, you can find out the plasticity of the material evidence.

Using the data obtained from the tensile test can determine the basic mechanical properties of the material indicators, strength indicators such as the elastic limit, yield strength and tensile strength; plasticity indicators such as elongation at break, section shrinkage.

2. Hardness test

Hardness testing is used to evaluate the compression and scratch resistance of a material. Common hardness testing methods include Brinell hardness testing, Vickers hardness and micro hardness testing. Vickers hardness test for uniform hardness of the material can be arbitrarily selected test force, its hardness value remains unchanged.

3. Fracture toughness

Test fracture toughness test is a test to assess the fracture performance of crack-containing body materials. Strength concept that: the external force reaches the yield strength, the material produces plastic deformation, the external force reaches the tensile strength Rm, the material produces fracture damage, for the crack-containing body material, it produces a brittle fracture below the yield strength. Fracture toughness is a kind of energy as the basic parameter of performance indicators, it and the state and depth of cracks within the material is closely related, it can provide quantitative performance indicators for the crack-containing body materials. Commonly used test methods include impact tests (e.g., impact bending tests and impact notch tests), in which the toughness of a material is evaluated by measuring the energy of fracture.

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4. Metallographic microscopy analysis

Metallographic microscopy analysis is the observation of the organizational structure and phase transformations of a metallic material through an optical microscope. This method of analysis provides information on grain size, crystal structure, phase content and defects to assess the lattice structure and treatment of the material.

5. Fatigue life testing

Fatigue damage is the fracture of a material after a certain number of cycles under alternating stresses below the tensile strength, i.e., there is no significant plastic deformation prior to fracture. Fatigue life testing is used to assess the durability of metallic materials under alternating stress. Commonly used methods include rotational bending fatigue test, tensile fatigue test and vibration fatigue test.

6. Corrosion testing

Corrosion testing is used to evaluate the corrosion resistance of metallic materials under specific environmental conditions. Common corrosion test methods include salt spray test, galvanic corrosion test and immersion test.

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